An embankment, generally landward of top bank, that confines
flow during high-water periods, thus preventing overflow into
Scour at a pier or abutment (or contraction scour) when the
bed material in the channel upstream of the bridge is moving at
the flow causing bridge scour.
load (or sediment load):
Amount of sediment being moved by a stream.
Removal of material from around piers, abutments, spurs, and
vortices induced by obstructions to the flow.
The profile of a stream or channel drawn along the length of its
centerline. In drawing the profile, elevations of the water
surface or the thalweg are plotted against distance as
measured from the mouth or from an arbitrary initial point.
That portion of a streambank having an elevation less than the
mean water level of the stream.
A numerical representation of a flow situation using
mathematical equations (also computer model).
A blanket or revetment of materials interwoven or otherwise
lashed together and placed to cover an area subject to scour.
meander or full
A meander in a river consists of two consecutive loops, one
flowing clockwise and the other counter-clockwise.
The distance between points of maximum curvature of
successive meanders of opposite phase in a direction normal
to the general course of the meander belt, measured between
center lines of channels.
The distance between lines drawn tangent to the extreme limits
of successive fully developed meanders.
The distance along a stream between corresponding points of
An individual loop of a meandering or sinuous stream lying
The ratio of meander width to meander length.
The radius of a circle inscribed on the centerline of a meander