Covering of stones on a channel bed or bank (used with
reference to natural covering).
peaked stone dike:
Riprap placed parallel to the toe of a streambank (at the
natural angle of repose of the stone) to prevent erosion of the
toe and induce sediment deposition behind the dike.
A stream or reach of a stream that flows continuously for all or
most of the year.
The upper boundary of the seepage water surface landward of
An elongated member, usually made of timber, concrete, or
steel, that serves as a structural component of a river-training
A type of permeable structure for the protection of banks
against caving; consists of a cluster of piles driven into the
stream, braced and lashed together.
Removal of soil material through subsurface flow of seepage
water that develops channels or "pipes" within the soil bank.
An alluvial deposit of sand or gravel lacking permanent vegetal
cover occurring in a channel at the inside of a meander loop,
usually somewhat downstream from the apex of the loop.
A stream which, as a whole, maintains its slope, depths, and
channel dimensions without any noticeable raising or lowering
of its bed (stable stream). Such condition may be temporary
from a geological point of view, but for practical engineering
purposes, the stream may be considered stable.
probable maximum flood:
A very rare flood discharge value computed by
hydrometeorological methods, usually in connection with major
Stone as received from a quarry without regard to gradation
A type of countermeasure composed of rock-filled wire fabric
supported by steel rails or posts driven into streambed.
Lowering the water against a bank more quickly than the bank
can drain without becoming unstable.
A segment of stream length that is arbitrarily bounded for
purposes of study.