Riprap - Layer, facing, or protective mound of stones randomly placed to prevent erosion, scour, or
sloughing of a structure or embankment; also, the stone so used.
Rubble - (1) Loose, angular, waterworn stones along a beach. (2) Rough, irregular fragments of broken
rock or concrete.
Runup - The rush of water up a structure or beach on breaking of a wave. Amount of runup is the
vertical height above stillwater level that the rush of water reaches.
Sand - Generally, coarse-grained soils having particle diameters between 0.18 and approximately 0.003
inches. Sands are intermediate between SILT and GRAVEL.
Sandbag - Cloth bag filled with sand or grout and used as a module in a shore protection device.
Sand Fillet- Accretion trapped by a groin or other protrusion in the littoral zone.
Scour - Removal of underwater material by waves or currents, especially at the base or toe of a shore
Screw Anchor - Type of metal anchor screwed into the bottom for holding power.
Seawall - Structure separating land and water areas primarily to prevent erosion and other damage by
wave action. See also BULKHEAD.
Semidiurnal Tide - Tide with two high and two low waters in a tidal day, each high and each low
approximately equal in stage.
Setup, Wind - Vertical rise in the Stillwater level on a body of water caused by piling up of water on the
shore due to wind action. Synonymous with wind tide and STORM SURGE. STORM SURGE usually
pertains to the ocean and large bodies of water. Wind setup usually pertains to reservoirs and smaller
bodies of water.
Shallow Water - Commonly, water of such a depth that surface waves are noticeably affected by bottom
topography. It is customary to consider water of depths less than one-twentieth the surface wavelength as
Sheet Pile - see PILE, SHEET.
Shoot - Collective term applied to the STEM and leaves, or any growing branch or twig.
Shore - Narrow strip of land in immediate contact with the sea, inc uding the zone between high and low
water lines. A shore of unconsolidated material is usually called a beach.
Shoreline - intersection of a specified plane of water with the shore or beach (e.g., the high water
shoreline would be the intersection of the plane of mean high water with the shore or beach). Line
delineating the shoreline on National Ocean Survey nautical charts and surveys approximates the mean
high water line.