Sill - Low offshore barrier structure whose crest is usually submerged, designed to retain sand on its
Silt - Generally refers to fine-grained soils having particle diameters between 0.003 and 0.00015 inches.
Intermediate between CLAY and SAND.
Slope - Degree of inclination to the horizontal. Usually expressed as a ratio, such as 1:25 or 1 on 25,
indicating 1-unit vertical rise in 25 units of horizontal distance; or in degrees from horizontal.
Specifications - Detailed description of particulars, such as size of stone , quality of materials, contractor
performance, terms, and quality control.
Sprig - Single plant with its roots relatively bare, as pulled apart from a clump and used for transplanting.
Stem - Main axis of a plant, leaf-bearing and flower-bearing, as distinguished from the root-bearing axis.
Stillwater Level - Elevation that the surface of the water would assume if all wave action were absent.
Storm Surge - Rise above normal water level on the open coast due to action of wind on the water
surface. Storm surge resulting from a hurricane also includes the rise in level due to atmospheric
pressure reduction as well as that due to wind stress. See SETUP, WIND.
Swell - Wind-generated waves travelling out of their generating area. Swell characteristically exhibits a
more regular and longer period, and has flatter crests than waves within their fetch.
Tidal Ranqe - Difference in height between consecutive high and low or higher high and lower low)
waters. The mean range is the difference in height between mean high water and mean low water. The
diurnal range is the difference in height between mean higher high water and mean lower low water. For
diurnal tides, the mean and diurnal range are identical. For semidiurnal and mixed tides, the spring range
is the difference in height between the high and low waters during the time of spring tides.
Tide - Periodic rising and falling of water resulting from gravitational attraction of the moon, sun and
other astronomical bodies acting upon the rotating earth. Although the accompanying horizontal
movement of the water resulting from the same cause is also sometimes called tide, it is preferable to
designate the latter as tidal current, reserving the name TIDE for vertical movement.
Tide Station - Place at which tide observations are being taken. A primary tide station is a location
where continuous observations are taken over a number of years to obtain basic tidal data for the locality.
A secondary tide station is operated over a short period of time to obtain data for a specific purpose.
Tie Rod - Steel rod used to tie back the top of a bulkhead or seawall. Also, a U-shaped rod used to tie
Sandgrabber blocks together, or a straight rod used to tie Nami Rings together.
Tiller - A plant SHOOT which springs from the root or bottom of the original plant stalk.
Topography - Configuration of a surface, including relief, position of streams, roads, buildings, etc.
Transplant - SHOOT or CULM removed from one location and replanted in another.