An advantage is that once posts are emplaced, the facing material can generally be installed and
repaired by individuals without resorting to heavy equipment. The cost of these bulkheads depends on
the spacing of posts and type of soil.
Hogwire Fencing and Stacked Bags. Hogwire fencing attached to posts can be used to support
sand bags stacked on the landward side of the fence (Figure 14). The structure can fail for a number of
reasons, primarily the vulnerability of the sand bags to undercutting by toe scour, which causes them to
tear as they slide against the hogwire fencing. The structure is relatively inexpensive, however, and can
be used when properly designed. This would include the use of PVC-coated, small mesh wire, deeply
embedded posts, placement of bottom bags and fencing in a trench to eliminate toe scour undercutting,
use of ultraviolet light-resistant fabrics or sand-cement slurries for filling bags, adequate relief of
drainage from behind the structure, and ample toe protection.
Treated Timber. Horizontal creosote-treated planks can be spiked to he landward side of post
anchored to logs in the backfill. The planks must be backed by filter cloth or graded stone to prevent soil
loss through the cracks, and riprap toe protection should be provided (Figure 15). . This type of structure
has performed well.