Overview of Monitoring Program
Upstream or ground water fluxes may affect the placement of both PS and NPS
monitoring stations. More stations or a more detailed monitoring program may be
required to assess diffuse NPS pollutants or combinations of PS and NPS
pollutants. Measuring the effect of pollution control, therefore, requires careful
assessment of major pollutant sources and contributing factors.
The most effective approach to reduce NPS pollution is to target and treat critical
areas with a system of best management practices
Critical areas are
sources in the watershed that affect the availability or mobility of pollutants or
have the greatest potential to improve the
areas which, when treated with
ecological condition of the water resource.
et al. (1985, 1987) provide
guidance on critical area determination for improving water quality.
As suggested in Figure 1.1, the monitoring program supports management
objectives and begins by documenting the water quality problem. From problem
documentation, monitoring objectives can be developed as the basis for the
monitoring program design. Data collection is the action stage that proceeds
according to program design. Data analysis employs statistical methods to
summarize the findings and to determine trends or effects due to treatment.
Program evaluation provides guidelines to assess and document findings. We
suggest this order of the process to improve efficiency and results. For example,
monitoring should not begin before the management and monitoring objectives
are set and the monitoring design and analysis plans are in place. Data analysis at
regular intervals throughout the monitoring program is part of a feedback loop that
provides timely information for making refinements in monitoring program
Figure 1.1 The development of a
Management Objectives and Problem Documentation
Monitoring Program Objectives
Monitoring should not begin
Monitoring Program Design
before the management and
monitoring objectives are set
and the monitoring design and
analysis plans are in place.