Seventeen of the project structures have either been modified or re-
paired in the past 50 years (or since construction). The most frequent
changes have come about because of the need to restrict the movement of bottom
sediments through or along the toe of these structures. Other causes leading
to repairs or modifications have been project improvements (new construction),
Typical armor stone used on the structures range from 4 to 16 tons,
with extremes of 1 ton used on the inner trunk sections of several structures
to 29 tons for the head section at Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
Typical cross sec-
tion geometries have crown elevations from
ft mean low water (mlw)
(+5 to 4-15 ft mlw, extremes), crown widths from 6 to 20 ft wide (6 to 10 ft on
older, 15 to 20 ft on newer projects), and
side slopes. Most
o f the more recent design analyses (last 30 years) employ an armor stone slope
stability formula (typically Hudson's) and a depth-limiting breaking wave
height. Design guidance is provided by the Shore Protection Manual (SPM)
(1984) or appropriate Corps of Engineers manuals.
Projects which were
model tested at WES are identified in the tables.
7 , Figures 1 , 2, and 3 are maps of SAW, SAJ, and SAM, respectively,
showing project locations. Location maps for SAC and SAS are incorporated
into individual project maps. Pertinent summary information on each project
i s presented in the following tabulation.