Figure 1.1 Breakwater failure modes

Introduction (cont.) - CHL-99-170021

Introduction (cont.) - CHL-99-170022

Introduction (cont.) - CHL-99-170023

Incipient Stability of Breakwater Armor Units

Armor Stability Equations

Armor Stability Equations (cont.) - CHL-99-170026

Armor Stability Equations (cont.) - CHL-99-170027

Armor Incipient Motion Studies

Armor Incipient Motion Studies (cont.)

Experimental Setup

Figure 2.1 Flume plan (top) and profile (bottom) views for incipient motion experiment

Figure 2.2 Definition sketch for typical structure profile

Table 2.2 Ranges of Measured Physical Quantities and Common Dimensionless Parameters for Plans 3 and 4

Experimental Setup (cont.)

Incipient Motion Observations

Experimental Measurements

Figure 2.3 Velocity time series for one wave period with Ht = 12 cm, T = 1 s, dt = 24 cm and dL = 8.8 cm measured 1 cm outside the armor layer

Figure 2.4 Velocity vector for one wave period for armor lifting measured 1 cm outside the armor layer with Ht = 8.4 cm, T = 2 s, dt = 24 cm, and dL = 17 cm

Figure 2.6 Measurement locations for vertical velocities shown in Figure 2.5

Figure 2.7 Maximum vertical velocity versus the square root of wave steepness for wave periods T = 1 and 2 s and relative depths rd = 0.36, 0.5, and 0.7

Incipient Motion Prediction

Incipient Motion Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170042

Incipient Motion Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170043

Table 2.3 Summary of Convection Measurement Experiment Results with cot θ=2, Dn=4.6 cm, and dt=24 cm

Figure 2.8 Vertical variation of vertical velocity under a steep wave front across the armor layers as a function of wave steepness

Incipient Motion Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170046

Incipient Motion Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170047

Figure 2.9 Photographs of sphere motion during a typical incipient motion experiment for Plan 4

Figure 2.10 Incipient motion criterion (Equation 2.16 with vc = 61.8 cm/s) versus wave steepness

Conclusions from Incipient Motion Study

Historical Damage Measurement and Description

Figure 3.1 Sketch of breakwater profile with definition of eroded area and depth of cover

Eroded Volume Method

Eroded Volume Method (cont.) - CHL-99-170054

Eroded Volume Method (cont.) - CHL-99-170055

Eroded Volume Method (cont.) - CHL-99-170056

Eroded Volume Method (cont.) - CHL-99-170057

Stone Count Method

Damage Measurement Experiments

Damage Measurement Experiments (cont.) - CHL-99-170060

Damage Measurement Experiments (cont.) - CHL-99-170061

Damage Progression Prediction

Table 3.1 Jackson (1968) Breakwater Damage from table 7.9 of SPM (1984)

Figure 3.2 Danage, characterized as eroded volume, as a function of monochromatic wave height for angular stone (SPM 1984)

Damage Progression Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170065

Damage Progression Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170066

Damage Progression Prediction (cont.) - CHL-99-170067

Variability in Stability Results

Variability in Stability Results (cont.)

Figure 3.3 Hudson stability coefficient versus relative depth for angular armor stone exposed to irregular waves

Deterioration Experiment

Figure 4.1 Flume profile for damage experiments

Figure 4.3 Photograph of model structures before testing

Experimental test conditions

Table 4.1 Experiment Conditions for Initial Damage Experiment

Figure 4.4 Armor and underlayer stone mass distributions for initial experiment

Armor Layer and Underlayer

Model-Prototype Similitude

Model-Prototype Similitude (cont.)

Wave Generation and Measurement in Initial Experiment

Table 4.2 Wave Generation in Initial Damage Experiment

Wave Measurement

Figure 4.5 Flume profile near structure with nearshore wave gage layout

Wave Measurement (cont.) - CHL-99-170084

Wave Measurement (cont.) - CHL-99-170085

Table 4.3 Nearshore Wave Statistics for Incident Spectra and Related Parameters with Structure in Place

Table 4.4 Nearshore Wave Statistics for Incident Time Series and Related Parameters with Structure in Place

Wave Measurement (cont.) - CHL-99-170088

Figure 4.6 Wave height variation throughout Waves 1, 2, and 3 at 11.9 cm toe depth

Wave Measurement (cont.) - CHL-99-170090

Wave Measurement (cont.) - CHL-99-170091

Effect of Overtopping on Stability

Figure 4.8 Plan (top) and Profile (bottom) views of breakwater profiler

Figure 4.9. Photograph of breakwater profiler

Armor Profiler and Profile Measuring Technique

Armor Profiler and Profile Measuring Technique (cont.) - CHL-99-170096

Armor Profiler and Profile Measuring Technique (cont.) - CHL-99-170097

Armor Profiler and Profile Measuring Technique (cont.) - CHL-99-170098

Damage Measurements

Overview - CHL-99-170100

Damage and Eroded Profile Parameters

Figure 5.1 Sketch of breakwater profile with definition of damage parameters

Probability Density Functions of Damage, Eroded Depth, and Cover Depth - CHL-99-170103

Probability Density Functions of Damage, Eroded Depth, and Cover Depth (cont.) - CHL-99-170104

Probability Density Functions of Damage, Eroded Depth, and Cover Depth (cont.) - CHL-99-170105

Figure 5.2 Probability density function for normalized damage S* for Series A', B', and C'

Figure 5.3 Probability density function for mormalized eroded depth E* for Series A', B', and C'

Temporal Damage Development - CHL-99-170108

Figure 5.5. Photographs of undamaged structures prior to Series AN

Figure 5.6 Profiles at beginning of Series A', damage level of S ≈ 0

Figure 5.7. Profiles midway through Series A , damage level of S = 6.5

Figure 5.8 Profiles following completion of Series A', damage level of S = 12.8

Figure 5.9. Photographs of structures following completion of Series AN, damage level of = 12.8

Figure 5.10 Number of waves versus mean damage one standard deviation for Series A'

Temporal Damage Development (cont.) - CHL-99-170115

Temporal Damage Development (cont.) - CHL-99-170116

Figure 5.11 Number of waves versus mean damage one standard deviation for Series B'

Characteristics of Profile Erosion

Figure 5.13 Number of waves versus mean maximum eroded depth one standard deviation for Series A'

Figure 5.14 Number of waves versus mean minimum cover depth one standard deviation for Series A'

Figure 5.16 Mean damage versus mean maximum eroded depth and mean minimum cover depth for Series A'

Figure 5.17 Mean damage versus mean maximum eroded length for Series A'

Figure 5.18 Number of waves versus mean maximum eroded depth one standard deviation for Series B'

Figure 5.20 Number of waves versus mean minimum cover depth one standard deviation for Series B'

Figure 5.22 Number of waves versus mean maximum eroded length for Series B'

Figure 5.24 Mean damage versus mean maximum eroded depth and mean minimum cover depth for Series B'

Figure 5.26 Mean damage versus mean maximum eroded length for Series B'

Damage and Eroded Profile Prediction

Figure 6.1 Prediction of damage variability, characterized by the standard deviation, as a function of mean damage for Series A', B', and C'

Figure 6.2 Predictionof mean maximum eroded depth as a function of mean damage for Series A', B', and C'

Damage Variability

Figure 6.4 Prediction of mean eroded length as a function of mean damage for Series A', B', and C'

Figure 6.5 Prediction of mean minimum cover depth as a function of mean damage for Series A', B', and C'

Figure 6.6 Prediction of standard deviation of minimum cover depth as a function of mean damage for Series A', B', and C'

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170135

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170136

Table 6.1 Depth-Limited Damage Data from Van der Meer (1988)

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170138

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170139

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170140

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170141

Damage Variability (cont.) - CHL-99-170142

Figure 6.7 Damage prediction relations compared to data for Series A'

Figure 6.8 Damage prediction relations compared to data for Series B'

Effect of Wave Period and Armor Gradation Progression

Table 7.2 Summary of Incident Wave Characteristics

Experimental Setup and Test Conditions

Figure 7.1 Stone mass distributions for riprap and underlayer

Probability Density Functions of Damage, Eroded Depth, and Cover Depth - CHL-99-170149

Figure 7.2 Probability density function for normalized damage S* for Series D', E', F', and G'

Figure 7.4 Probability density function for normalized cover depth C* for Series D', E', F', and G'

Figure 7.5 Prediction of damage variability, characterized by the standard deviation, as a function of mean damage for Series B', D', E', F', and G'

Figure 7.6 Prediction of mean maximum eroded depth as afunction of mean damage for Series B', D', E', F', ang G'

Figure 7.7 Prediction of standard deviation of maximum eroded depth as a function of mean damage for Series B', D', F', and G'

Eroded Profile Prediction

Figure 7.9 Prediction of mean minimum cover depth as a function of mean damage for Series B', D, E', F', and G

Temporal Damage Development - CHL-99-170157

Figure 7.11 Damage prediction relations compared to data for Series D'

Figure 7.13 Dmage prediction relations compared to data for Series F'

Figure 7.15 Damage prediction relations compared to data for Series D' including damage initiation adjustment

Figure 7.17 Damage prediction relations compared to data for Series F' including damage initiation adjustment

Summary and Conclusions - CHL-99-170162

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170163

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170164

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170165

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170166

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170167

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170168

Summary and Conclusions (cont.) - CHL-99-170169

Appendix A. Summary of Wave Measurements

Figure A1. Wave generator command signals for six wave cases of initial experiment

Figure A.2 Spectra of wave generator command signals for Waves 1, 2, and 3 for 11.9 cm toe depth

Figure A.4 Wave 1 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.5 Wave 2 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.6 Wave 3 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.7 Wave 4 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.8 Wave 5 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.9 Wave 6 measured time series from wave gages

Figure A.10 Wave 1 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.11 Wave 2 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.12 Wave 3 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.13 Wave 4 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.14 Wave 5 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.15 Wave 6 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.16 Wave 7 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.17 Wave 8 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.18 Wave 9 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.19 Wave 10 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.20 Wave 11 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.21 Wave 12 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.22 Wave 13 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.23 Wave 14 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.24 Wave 14 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.25 Wave 16 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.26 Wave 17 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.27 Wave 18 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.28 Wave 19 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.29 Wave 20 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.30 Wave 21 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.31 Wave 22 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.32 Wave 23 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.33 Wave 24 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.34 Wave 25 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Figure A.35 Wave 26 incident and reflected spectra from wave gages

Appendix B. Summary of Damage and Profile Measurements

Table B1. Series A' Measured Damage

Table B1. Series A' Measured Damage (cont.)

Table B2. Series B' Measured Damage

Table B3. Series C' Measured Damage

Table B4. Series D' Measured Damage

Table B5. Series E' Measured Damage

Table B6. Series F' Measured Damage

Table B7. Series G' Measured Damage

References - CHL-99-170214

References (cont.) - CHL-99-170215

References (cont.) - CHL-99-170216

References (cont.) - CHL-99-170217

References (cont.) - CHL-99-170218

References (cont.) - CHL-99-170219

Report Documentation Page - CHL-99-170220

CHL-99-17

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