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discussed in Section 2.0 of this report. These criteria include chemical testing, sediment grain
size, color, particle shape, debris, and compactability/moldability. Each source of potential
beach sediment will be analyzed against each of these criteria to determine if the sediment is
beach compatible and which site should receive it. This section describes each of these criteria.
4.2.1
Chemical Testing
BEACON and resource agencies have specified that material with a chemical content
incompatible with beach fill is not desired. BEACON proposes to conduct chemical testing for
each potential sand source if an initial investigation warrants testing. However, depending on the
sand source, the types and amount of chemical testing may change. Some sand sources may have
more potential of containing contaminants than others, in which case more testing would occur.
Regarding chemical compatibility, sediment samples shall be stored per USEPA guidelines.
Samples shall be taken from five (5) different sites, at both the source and disposal sites. The
volume of sediment samples shall be sufficient to test grain size compatibility and chemistry
suitability per the Inland Testing Manual (ITM) (USEPA and USACE 1998).  Chemical
suitability shall comply with the criteria outlined in the ITM. Chemical testing may encompass
metals, organic compounds (PCB's, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), total
organic carbon (TOC), and possibly certain bacteria. At a minimum, the basic suite of bulk
chemistry testing will be done as a screening mechanism for more detailed tests. Bulk chemistry
testing is specified in the ITM.
Regulatory agencies are often more concerned with fine-grained sediments than coarser
sediments for a number of reasons. First, many contaminants have a greater affinity for clay and
silt than for sand (USEPA and USACE 1998, p.8-6). Second, fines can settle out in calmer
waters offshore, burying reef habitat. Third, fines can remain in suspension for a certain period
creating turbidity that obscures feeding grounds for sensitive birds.
Chemical testing may not be necessary or as complex if a site evaluation indicates the material is
not a "carrier of contaminants." The ITM (p. 4-1) notes the following list of conditions that will
tend to preclude contamination:
1.
Material is primarily sand, gravel, and/or inert material;
2.
Sediments are from locations far removed from sources of contaminants (based on agency
judgement);
3.
Sediments were deposited in pre-industrial times; and
4.
Sediments were not exposed to modern sources of pollution.
Additionally, examples of potential contemporary sources of pollution are also presented in the
ITM (p. 4-3) as follows:
1.
Urban and agricultural runoff;
2.
Sewer overflows/bypassing;
3.
Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges;
4-5
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